California Nonprofit Corporation Law Print E-mail

 

COMPLETE CALIFORNIA NONPROFIT CORPORATION LAW

z1_civic_auditorium_bordergap.pngDIVISION 2. NONPROFIT CORPORATION LAW

5000. This division shall be known and may be cited as the Nonprofit Corporation Law.

5001. This division of the Nonprofit Corporation Law, or any part, chapter, article or section thereof, may at any time be amended or repealed.

z2_city_hall_bordergap.pngPART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS AND DEFINITIONS GOVERNING PARTS 1 THROUGH 5

5002. Unless the provisions or the context otherwise requires, the general provisions and definitions set forth in this part govern the construction of this part and of Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110), and Part 5 (commencing with Section 9910) of this division.

5003. (a) The provisions of this part apply to:

(1) Corporations organized under Part 2, Part 3, and Part 4 of this division;

(2) Corporations expressly subject to Part 2, Part 3 or Part 4 of this division pursuant to a particular provision of this division or Division 3 (commencing with Section 12000) or other specific statutory provision;

(3) Corporations which pursuant to the express provisions of Part 1, Division 2 (commencing with Section 9000) in effect immediately prior to January 1, 1980, are subject to the provisions of Part 1 of Division 2 and which, on or after January 1, 1980, are subject to the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law, the Nonprofit Mutual Benefit Corporation Law or the Nonprofit Religious Corporation Law, pursuant to Section 9912.

(4) Corporations expressly subject to Part 1, Division 2 (commencing with Section 9000) in effect immediately prior to January 1, 1980, pursuant to a particular provision of this division or Division 3 (commencing with Section 12000) or other specific statutory provision in effect immediately prior to January 1, 1980, and which, on or after January 1, 1980, are subject to the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law, the Nonprofit Mutual Benefit Corporation Law, or the Nonprofit Religious Corporation Law, pursuant to Section 9912; and

(5) Corporations incorporated as permitted by subdivision (d) of Section 9911.

(b) The existence of corporations formed or existing on the date of enactment or reenactment of this part, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 shall not be affected by the enactment or reenactment of such parts or by any change in the requirements for the formation of corporations or by the amendment or repeal of the laws under which they were formed or created.

(c) Neither the repeals effected by the enactment or reenactment of this part or of Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5, nor the amendment thereof shall impair or take away any existing liability or cause of action against any corporation, its members, directors or officers incurred prior to the time of such enactment, reenactment or amendment.

5004. A corporation may be sued as provided in the Code of Civil Procedure.

5005. Any corporation shall, as a condition of its existence as a corporation, be subject to the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure authorizing the attachment of corporate property.

5005. 1. (a) Except for a liability which may be insured against pursuant to Division 4 (commencing with Section 3200) of the Labor Code, an authorized corporation may do any of the following:

(1) Insure itself against all or any part of any tort liability.

(2) Insure any employee of the corporation against all or any part of his or her liability for injury resulting from an act or omission in the scope of employment.

(3) Insure any board member, officer, or volunteer of the corporation against any liability that may arise from any act or omission in the scope of participation with the corporation.

(4) Insure itself against any loss arising from physical damage to motor vehicles owned or operated by the corporation.

(b) The insurance authorized pursuant to this section shall only be available to an authorized corporation where that corporation has joined with two or more other authorized corporations in an arrangement providing for the pooling of self-insured claims or losses. The pooling arrangement shall not be considered insurance nor be subject to regulation under the Insurance Code.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize a corporation organized pursuant to this division to pay for, or to insure, contract, or provide for payment for, any part of a claim or judgment against an employee of the corporation for punitive or exemplary damages.

(d) Any insurance pool established pursuant to this section shall have initial pooled resources of not less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).

(e) All participating corporations in any pool established pursuant to this section must agree to pay premiums or make other mandatory financial contributions or commitments necessary to ensure a financially sound risk pool.

(f) For the purpose of this section, an authorized "corporation" means any corporation that meets all of the following criteria:

(1) Is organized chiefly to provide or fund health or human services, but does not include a hospital.

(2) Is exempt from taxation under paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of Section 501 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.

5006. The fees of the Secretary of State for filing instruments by or on behalf of corporations are prescribed in Article 3 (commencing with Section 12180) of Chapter 3 of Part 2 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.

5007. Any agreement, certificate or other instrument relating to a domestic corporation, a foreign corporation, or a foreign business corporation filed pursuant to the provisions of this part, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 may be corrected with respect to any misstatement of fact contained therein, any defect in the execution thereof or any other error or defect contained therein, by filing a certificate of correction entitled "Certificate of Correction of _____ (insert here the title of the agreement, certificate or other instrument to be corrected and name(s) of the corporation or corporations)"; provided, however, that no such certificate of correction shall alter the wording of any resolution which was in fact adopted by the board or the members or delegates or effect a corrected amendment of articles which amendment as so corrected would not in all respects have complied with the requirements of this part, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 at the time of filing of the agreement, certificate or other instrument being corrected. Such certificate of correction shall be signed and verified or acknowledged as provided in this part with respect to the agreement, certificate or other instrument being corrected. It shall set forth the following:

(a) The name or names of the corporation or corporations.

(b) The date the agreement, certificate or other instrument being corrected was filed.

(c) The provision in the agreement, certificate or other instrument as corrected and, if the execution was defective, wherein it was defective.

The filing of the certificate of correction shall not alter the effective time of the agreement, certificate or instrument being corrected, which shall remain as its original effective time, and such filing shall not affect any right or liability accrued or incurred before such filing, except that any right or liability accrued or incurred by reason of the error or defect being corrected shall be extinguished by such filing if the person having such right has not detrimentally relied on the original instrument.

5008. (a) Upon receipt of any instrument by the Secretary of State for filing pursuant to this part, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5, if it conforms to law, it shall be filed by, and in the office of the Secretary of State and the date of filing endorsed thereon. Except for instruments filed pursuant to Section 6210, 8210, or 9660 the date of filing shall be the date the instrument is received by the Secretary of State unless withheld from filing for a period of time pursuant to a request by the party submitting it for filing or unless in the judgment of the Secretary of State the filing is intended to be coordinated with the filing of some other corporate document which cannot be filed. The Secretary of State shall file a document as of any requested future date not more than 90 days after its receipt, including a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, if the document is received in the Secretary of State's office at least one business day prior to the requested date of filing. An instrument does not fail to conform to law because it is not accompanied by the full filing fee if the unpaid portion of such fee does not exceed the limits established by the policy of the Secretary of State for extending credit in such cases.

(b) If the Secretary of State determines that an instrument submitted for filing or otherwise submitted does not conform to law and returns it to the person submitting it, the instrument may be resubmitted accompanied by a written opinion of a member of the State Bar of California submitting the instrument, or representing the person submitting it, to the effect that the specific provision of the instrument objected to by the Secretary of State does conform to law and stating the points and authorities upon which the opinion is based. The Secretary of State shall rely, with respect to any disputed point of law (other than the application of Section 5122, 7122, or 9122), upon such written opinion in determining whether the instrument conforms to law. The date of filing in such case shall be the date the instrument is received on resubmission.

(c) Any instrument filed with respect to a corporation (other than original articles) may provide that it is to become effective not more than 90 days subsequent to its filing date. In case such a delayed effective date is specified, the instrument may be prevented from becoming effective by a certificate stating that by appropriate corporate action it has been revoked and is null and void, executed in the same manner as the original instrument and filed before the specified effective date. In the case of a merger agreement, such certificate revoking the earlier filing need only be executed on behalf of one of the constituent corporations. If no such revocation certificate is filed, the instrument becomes effective on the date specified.

5008. 5. The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of articles if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee or franchise tax is not paid upon presentation. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give written notice of the applicability of this section and the cancellation date which shall be not less than 20 days from the date of mailing the written notice as certified by the Secretary of State, to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent before the date of cancellation as stated in the written notice of cancellation, the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The written notice shall be given 70 days or less after the original filing.

5008. 6. (a) A corporation that (1) fails to file a statement pursuant to Section 6210, 8210, or 9660 for an applicable filing period, (2) has not filed a statement pursuant to Section 6210, 8210, or 9660 during the preceding 24 months, and (3) was certified for penalty pursuant to Section 6810, 8810, or 9690 for the same filing period, shall be subject to suspension pursuant to this section rather than to penalty under Section 6810 or 8810.

(b) When subdivision (a) is applicable, the Secretary of State shall mail a notice to the corporation informing the corporation that its corporate powers, rights, and privileges will be suspended 60 days from the date of the notice if the corporation does not file the statement required by Section 6210, 8210, or 9660.

(c) If the 60-day period expires without the delinquent corporation filing the required statement, the Secretary of State shall notify the Franchise Tax Board of the suspension, and mail a notice of the suspension to the corporation. Thereupon, except for the purpose of filing an application for exempt status or amending the articles of incorporation as necessary either to perfect that application or to set forth a new name, the corporate powers, rights, and privileges of the corporation are suspended.

(d) A statement required by Section 6210, 8210, or 9660 may be filed, notwithstanding suspension of the corporate powers, rights, and privileges under this section or under provisions of the Revenue and Taxation Code. Upon the filing of a statement under Section 6210, 8210, or 9660, by a corporation that has suffered suspension under this section, the Secretary of State shall certify that fact to the Franchise Tax Board and the corporation may thereupon be relieved from suspension, unless the corporation is held in suspension by the Franchise Tax Board because of Section 23301, 23301. 5, or 23775 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.

5009. Except as otherwise required, any reference in this part, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 to mailing means first-, second-, or third-class mail, postage prepaid, unless registered mail is specified. Registered mail includes certified mail.

5010. If the articles or bylaws provide for more or less than one vote for any membership on any matter, the references in Sections 5033 and 5034 to a majority or other proportion of memberships mean, as to those matters, a majority or other proportion of the votes entitled to be cast. Whenever in Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) or Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110) members are disqualified from voting on any matter, their memberships shall not be counted for the determination of a quorum at any meeting to act upon, or the required vote to approve action upon, that matter under any other provision of Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) or Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110) or the articles or bylaws.

5011. All references in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110) to the voting of memberships include the voting of securities given voting rights in the articles pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 7132.

5012. All references in this part, Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), or Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) to financial statements of a corporation mean statements prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles or some other basis of accounting which reasonably sets forth the assets and liabilities and the income and expenses of the corporation and discloses the accounting basis used in their preparation.

5013. As used in this part, Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), or Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110), "independent accountant" means a certified public accountant or public accountant who is independent of the corporation, as determined in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and who is engaged to audit financial statements of the corporation or perform other accounting services.

5014. Any requirement in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110) for a vote of each class of members means such a vote regardless of limitations or restrictions upon the voting rights thereof, unless expressly limited to voting memberships.

5015. Any reference in this part, Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110), or Part 5 (commencing with Section 9910) to the time a notice is given or sent means, unless otherwise expressly provided, (a) the time a written notice by mail is deposited in the United States mails, postage prepaid; or (b) the time any other written notice, including facsimile, telegram, or other electronic mail message, is personally delivered to the recipient or is delivered to a common carrier for transmission, or actually transmitted by the person giving the notice by electronic means, to the recipient; or (c) the time any oral notice is communicated, in person or by telephone, including a voice messaging system or other system or technology designed to record and communicate messages, or wireless, to the recipient, including the recipient's designated voice mailbox or address on such a system, or to a person at the office of the recipient who the person giving the notice has reason to believe will promptly communicate it to the recipient.

5016. A notice or report mailed or delivered as part of a newsletter, magazine or other organ regularly sent to members shall constitute written notice or report pursuant to this division when addressed and mailed or delivered to the member, or in the case of members who are residents of the same household and who have the same address on the books of the corporation, when addressed and mailed or delivered to one of such members, at the address appearing on the books of the corporation.

5030. "Acknowledged" means that an instrument is either:

(a) Formally acknowledged as provided in Article 3 (commencing with Section 1180) of Chapter 4 of Title 4 of Part 4 of Division 2 of the Civil Code; or

(b) Accompanied by a declaration in writing signed by the persons executing the same that they are such persons and that the instrument is the act and deed of the person or persons executing the same.

Any certificate of acknowledgment taken without this state before a notary public or a judge or clerk of a court of record having an official seal need not be further authenticated.

5031. A corporation is an "affiliate" of, or a corporation is "affiliated" with, another specified corporation if it directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the other specified corporation.

5032. "Approved by (or approval of) the board" means approved or ratified by the vote of the board or by the vote of a committee authorized to exercise the powers of the board, except as to matters not within the competence of the committee under Section 5212, Section 7212, or Section 9212.

5033. "Approval by (or approval of) a majority of all members" means approval by an affirmative vote (or written ballot in conformity with Section 5513, Section 7513, or Section 9413) of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast. Such approval shall include the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding memberships of each class, unit, or grouping of members entitled, by any provision of the articles or bylaws or of Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 to vote as a class, unit, or grouping of members on the subject matter being voted upon and shall also include the affirmative vote of such greater proportion, including all, of the votes of the memberships of any class, unit, or grouping of members if such greater proportion is required by the bylaws (subdivision (e) of Section 5151, subdivision (e) of Section 7151, or subdivision (e) of Section 9151) or Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5.

5034. "Approval by (or approval of) the members" means approved or ratified by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes represented and voting at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present (which affirmative votes also constitute a majority of the required quorum) or written ballot in conformity with Section 5513, 7513, or 9413 or by the affirmative vote or written ballot of such greater proportion, including all of the votes of the memberships of any class, unit, or grouping of members as may be provided in the bylaws (subdivision (e) of Section 5151, subdivision (e) of Section 7151, or subdivision (e) of Section 9151) or in Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 or Part 5 for all or any specified member action.

5035. "Articles" includes the articles of incorporation, amendments thereto, amended articles, restated articles, and certificates of incorporation.

5036. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b) or (c), "authorized number" means 5 percent of the voting power.

(b) Where (disregarding any provision for cumulative voting which would otherwise apply) the total number of votes entitled to be cast for a director is 1,000 or more, but less than 5,000 the authorized number shall be 21/2 percent of the voting power, but not less than 50.

(c) Where (disregarding any provision for cumulative voting which would otherwise apply) the total number of votes entitled to be cast for a director is 5,000 or more, the authorized number shall be one-twentieth of 1 percent of the voting power, but not less than 125.

(d) Any right under Part 2, Part 3, or Part 4 which may be exercised by the authorized number, or some multiple thereof, may be exercised by a member with written authorizations obtained within any 11-month period from members who, in the aggregate, hold the equivalent voting power. Any such authorization shall specify the right to be exercised thereunder and the duration thereof (which shall not exceed three years).

(e) Where any provision of Part 2, Part 3, or Part 4 specifies twice the authorized number, that means two times the number calculated according to subdivision (a), (b) or (c).

5037. "Bylaws" includes amendments thereto and amended bylaws.

5038. "Board" means the board of directors of the corporation.

5039. "Business corporation" means a corporation as defined in Section 162 of the General Corporation Law.

5040. "Chapter" refers to a chapter of Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), or Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) unless otherwise expressly stated.

5041. "Class" refers to those memberships which: (a) are identified in the articles or bylaws as being a different type of membership; or (b) have the same rights with respect to voting, dissolution, redemption and transfer. For the purpose of this section, rights shall be considered the same if they are determined by a formula applied uniformly.

5043. "Common shares," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means shares which have no preference over any other shares with respect to distribution of assets on liquidation or with respect to payment of dividends.

5044. "Constituent corporation" means a corporation which is merged with one or more other corporations and includes the surviving corporation.

5045. "Control" means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a corporation.

5046. (a) "Corporation" as used in this part and Part 5 (commencing with Section 9910), refers to corporations defined in subdivisions (b), (c), and (d).

(b) "Corporation," as used in Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), means a nonprofit public benefit corporation as defined in Section 5060.

(c) "Corporation," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110) means a nonprofit mutual benefit corporation as defined in Section 5059.

(d) "Corporation," as used in Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110), including those provisions of Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) made applicable pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 9610) of Part 4, means a nonprofit religious corporation as defined in Section 5061.

5047. Except where otherwise expressly provided, "directors" means natural persons, designated in the articles or bylaws or elected by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons designated, elected or appointed by any other name or title to act as members of the governing body of the corporation.

5047. 5. (a) The Legislature finds and declares that the services of directors and officers of nonprofit corporations who serve without compensation are critical to the efficient conduct and management of the public service and charitable affairs of the people of California. The willingness of volunteers to offer their services has been deterred by a perception that their personal assets are at risk for these activities. The unavailability and unaffordability of appropriate liability insurance makes it difficult for these corporations to protect the personal assets of their volunteer decisionmakers with adequate insurance. It is the public policy of this state to provide incentive and protection to the individuals who perform these important functions.

(b) Except as provided in this section, no cause of action for monetary damages shall arise against any person serving without compensation as a director or officer of a nonprofit corporation subject to Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110), Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), or Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) of this division on account of any negligent act or omission occurring (1) within the scope of that person's duties as a director acting as a board member, or within the scope of that person's duties as an officer acting in an official capacity; (2) in good faith; (3) in a manner that the person believes to be in the best interest of the corporation; and (4) is in the exercise of his or her policymaking judgment.

(c) This section shall not limit the liability of a director or officer for any of the following:

(1) Self-dealing transactions, as described in Sections 5233 and 9243.

(2) Conflicts of interest, as described in Section 7233.

(3) Actions described in Sections 5237, 7236, and 9245.

(4) In the case of a charitable trust, an action or proceeding against a trustee brought by a beneficiary of that trust.

(5) Any action or proceeding brought by the Attorney General.

(6) Intentional, wanton, or reckless acts, gross negligence, or an action based on fraud, oppression, or malice.

(7) Any action brought under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 16700) of Part 2 of Division 7 of the Business and Professions Code.

(d) This section only applies to nonprofit corporations organized to provide religious, charitable, literary, educational, scientific, social, or other forms of public service that are exempt from federal income taxation under Section 501(c)(3) or 501(c)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(e) This section applies only if the nonprofit corporation maintains a general liability insurance policy with an amount of coverage of at least the following amounts:

(1) If the corporation's annual budget is less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), the minimum required amount is five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000).

(2) If the corporation's annual budget equals or exceeds fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), the minimum required amount is one million dollars ($1,000,000).

This section applies only if the claim against the director or officer may also be made directly against the corporation and a general liability insurance policy is in force both at the time of injury and at the time the claim against the corporation is made, so that a policy is applicable to the claim. If a general liability policy is found to cover the damages caused by the director or officer, no cause of action as provided in this section shall be maintained against the director or officer.

(f) For the purposes of this section, the payment of actual expenses incurred in attending meetings or otherwise in the execution of the duties of a director or officer shall not constitute compensation.

(g) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the liability of a nonprofit corporation for any negligent act or omission of a director, officer, employee, agent, or servant occurring within the scope of his or her duties.

(h) This section does not apply to any corporation that unlawfully restricts membership, services, or benefits conferred on the basis of political affiliation, age, or any characteristic listed or defined in subdivision (b) or (e) of Section 51 of the Civil Code.

(i) This section does not apply to any volunteer director or officer who receives compensation from the corporation in any other capacity, including, but not limited to, as an employee.

5048. "Disappearing corporation" means a constituent corporation which is not the surviving corporation.

5049. "Distribution" means the distribution of any gains, profits or dividends to any member as such. As used in this section, "member" means any person who is a member as defined in Section 5056 and any person who is referred to as a member as authorized by subdivision (a) of Sections 5332, 7333 and 9332.

5050. "Domestic corporation" means a corporation formed under the laws of this state.

5051. "Filed," unless otherwise expressly provided, means filed in the office of the Secretary of State.

5052. "Foreign business corporation," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means a foreign corporation as defined in Section 171 except that it does not include a foreign corporation as defined in Section 5053.

5053. "Foreign corporation" means any corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction other than California pursuant to that jurisdiction's law for the incorporation of nonprofit corporations; except that as used in subdivision (b) of Section 5122, in subdivision (c) of Section 7122, and in subdivision (b) of Section 9122, "foreign corporation" means a corporation described in Section 171.

5054. "Incentive and benefit plans," as used in Section 5140, in Section 7140, and in Section 9140 includes, but is not limited to, any plan or agreement under which the compensation of officers or employees is fixed, in full or in part, by reference to the financial performance of the corporation.

5055. "Liquidating price" or "liquidation preference," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means amounts payable on memberships of any class, upon voluntary or involuntary dissolution, winding up or distribution of the entire assets of the corporation, in priority to amounts payable to members of another class or classes.

5056. (a) "Member" means any person who, pursuant to a specific provision of a corporation's articles or bylaws, has the right to vote for the election of a director or directors or on a disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of a corporation or on a merger or on a dissolution unless the provision granting such right to vote is only effective as a result of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 7132. "Member" also means any person who is designated in the articles or bylaws as a member and, pursuant to a specific provision of a corporation's articles or bylaws, has the right to vote on changes to the articles or bylaws.

(b) The articles or bylaws may confer some or all of the rights of a member, set forth in this part and in Parts 2 through 5 of this division, upon any person or persons who do not have any of the voting rights referred to in subdivision (a).

(c) Where a member of a corporation is not a natural person, such member may authorize in writing one or more natural persons to vote on its behalf on any or all matters which may require a vote of the members.

(d) A person is not a member by virtue of any of the following:

(1) Any rights such person has as a delegate.

(2) Any rights such person has to designate or select a director or directors.

(3) Any rights such person has as a director.

5057. A "membership" refers to the rights a member has pursuant to a corporation's articles, bylaws and this division.

5058. "Membership certificate," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means a document evidencing a transferable property interest in a corporation.

5059. "Nonprofit mutual benefit corporation" or "mutual benefit corporation" means a corporation which is organized under Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), or subject to Part 3 under the provisions of subdivision (a) of Section 5003.

5060. "Nonprofit public benefit corporation" or "public benefit corporation" means a corporation which is organized under Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) or subject to Part 2 under the provisions of subdivision (a) of Section 5003.

5061. "Nonprofit religious corporation" or "religious corporation" means a corporation which is organized under Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) or subject to Part 4 pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 5003.

5062. "Officers' certificate" means a certificate signed and verified by the chairman of the board, the president or any vice president and by the secretary, the chief financial officer, the treasurer or any assistant secretary or assistant treasurer.

5063. "On the certificate," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means that a statement appears on the face of a certificate or on the reverse thereof with a reference thereto on the face.

5063. 5. "Other business entity" means a domestic or foreign limited liability company, limited partnership, general partnership, business trust, real estate investment trust, unincorporated association (other than a nonprofit association), or a domestic reciprocal insurer organized after 1974 to provide medical malpractice insurance as set forth in Article 16 (commencing with Section 1550) of Chapter 3 of Part 2 of Division 1 of the Insurance Code. As used herein, "general partnership" means a "partnership" as defined in subdivision (7) of Section 16101; "business trust" means a business organization formed as a trust; "real estate investment trust" means a "real estate investment trust" as defined in subsection (a) of Section 856 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended; and "unincorporated association" has the meaning set forth in Section 18035.

5064. A "parent" of a specified corporation is an affiliate controlling such corporation directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries.

5064. 5. "Parent party" means the corporation in control of any constituent domestic or foreign corporation or other business entity and whose equity securities are issued, transferred, or exchanged in a merger pursuant to Section 6019. 1 or 8019. 1.

5065. "Person," in addition to those entities specified in Section 18 and unless otherwise expressly provided, includes any association, business corporation, company, corporation, corporation sole, domestic corporation, estate, foreign corporation, foreign business corporation, individual, joint stock company, joint venture, mutual benefit corporation, public benefit corporation, religious corporation, partnership, government or political subdivision, agency or instrumentality of a government.

5067. "Preferred shares," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means shares other than common shares.

5068. "Proper county" means the county where the corporation's principal office in this state is located or, if the corporation has no such office, the County of Sacramento.

5069. "Proxy" means a written authorization signed by a member or the member's attorney in fact giving another person or persons power to vote on behalf of such member. "Signed" for the purpose of this section means the placing of the member's name on the proxy (whether by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the member or such member's attorney in fact.

5070. "Proxyholder" means the person or persons to whom a proxy is given.

5071. "Shareholder," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means one who is a holder of record of shares.

5072. "Shares," as used in Part 3 (commencing with Section 7110), means the units into which the proprietary interests in a business corporation or foreign business corporation are divided in the articles.

5073. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), "subsidiary" of a specified corporation means a corporation more than 50 percent of the voting power of which is owned directly, or indirectly through one or more subsidiaries, by the specified corporation.

(b) For the purpose of Section 7315, "subsidiary" of a specified corporation means a corporation more than 25 percent of the voting power of which is owned directly, or indirectly through one or more subsidiaries as defined in subdivision (a), by the specified corporation.

5074. "Surviving corporation" means a corporation into which one or more other corporations are merged.

5075. "Vacancy" when used with respect to the board means any authorized position of director which is not then filled, whether the vacancy is caused by death, resignation, removal, change in the number of directors authorized in the articles or bylaws (by the board or the members) or otherwise.

5076. "Verified" means that the statements contained in a certificate or other document are declared to be true of the own knowledge of the persons executing the same in either:

(a) An affidavit signed by them under oath before an officer authorized by the laws of this state or of the place where it is executed to administer oaths; or

(b) A declaration in writing executed by them under penalty of perjury and stating the date and place (whether within or without this state) of execution.

Any affidavit sworn to without this state before a notary public or a judge or clerk of a court of record having an official seal need not be further authenticated.

5077. "Vote" includes, but is not limited to, authorization by written consent pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 5211, subdivision (b) of Section 7211, or subdivision (b) of Section 9211 and authorization by written ballot pursuant to Section 5513, Section 7513, or Section 9413.

5078. "Voting power" means the power to vote for the election of directors at the time any determination of voting power is made and does not include the right to vote upon the happening of some condition or event which has not yet occurred. In any case where different classes of memberships are entitled to vote as separate classes for different members of the board, the determination of percentage of voting power shall be made on the basis of the percentage of the total number of authorized directors which the memberships in question (whether of one or more classes) have the power to elect in an election at which all memberships then entitled to vote for the election of any directors are voted.

5079. "Written" or "in writing" includes facsimile, telegraphic, and other electronic communication as authorized by this code, including an electronic transmission by a corporation that satisfies the requirements of Section 20.

5080. "Written ballot" does not include a ballot distributed at a special or regular meeting of members.